Understanding The Difference Between Writing Scripts And Language

“The hieroglyphic writing originated in Egypt around 3,100 BC, at the birth of the First Dynasty, during the reigns of Narmer, Ka, Den, and possibly, Senedj. The hieroglyphic script was not borrowed from Mesopotamia. It was a domestic invention initiated and developed by the ancient Egyptians in their own homeland, on the banks of the Nile. From its origins, the writing system was equipped with a complete array of intellectual and technical resources: ideograms, phonograms, a writing medium, and scribal instruments.”-The’ophile Obenga African Philosophy The Pharaonic Period: 2780-330 BC.

The significance of this writing system developed in Ancient Kmt has sparked a series of debates among linguists. We have had some who refute it as the earliest writing system, others who refuse to allow Africans to be its owners stating it’s a copy of Mesopotamia, and the select few who says it’s been incorrectly deciphered many of them has never studied the writing system. 

The Hieroglyphs contains 5 different writing systems that existed from the old kingdom during three intermediate periods, late period, and a Ptolemaic era. Those writing systems are Hieroglyphic, Cursive Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, Demotic, and Coptic. During the Old and Middle Egyptian eras a total of 700 hieroglyphs existed, but after the Ptolemaic period at least 7000 different hieroglyphs now exist. “The ancestral Remetch referred to the hieroglyphic writing system as Ss mdw-nTr Sesh Medew Netcher- Inscriptions of Divine Words. It consists of pictures of the natural flora, fauna, and man made objects indigenous of the Nile Valley Corridor”- Wudjau Men-Ib Iry-Maat A Beginner’s Introduction To Medew Netcher.

There are four ways we can read the Hieroglyphs and they are: horizontal left to right or vertical left to right. The Hieroglyphs contain 24 monoliterals  25 if you count the double reed leaf as a monoliteral. Monoliterals are one letter words that also help make up what we call the Egyptian alphabet, and along with Bi-literals (2) letter and Tri-literals (3) letter consonants help make up the entire system. “Each sign used to write a given word generally serves one of the following functions: 1) Ideogram, 2) Phonogram 3) Determnatives. The signs that can perform each of the three roles, in different words of course, are relatively few.” Wudjau Men-Ib Iry-Maat A Beginner’s Introduction To Medew Netcher. Also the signs can function as Pictograms, Ideograms, Phonograms which deals with either a idea, sign, symbol or sound.

Hieratic writings are usually cursive and are always written from right to left. Demotic is a complicated script it derives from Hieratic and was used for religious text as well it can be written and read from right to left. Coptic has a Greek perspective using most of their alphabet and a few of the Egyptian alphabet as a blend to make up it’s writing system. Coptic came from the Egyptians who had recently adopted the belief system of the early AD period.

People who do not study the language or the writing system will continue to make the biggest mistake you possible can make by confusing one with the other. They are not the same and must not be treated as such. It is very important that we understand the language and the many different writing scripts which are involved with a particular time period. Language is supported by a writing script because it represents the voice and sounds expressed through communication by the way of thoughts and feelings.

“The language of ancient Egypt, in both its pharanoic and Coptic variants, is not an Indo-European language such as Hittite or Greek. Nor is it a Semetic language such as Akkaddian, Hebrew, or Arabic. Neither is it a Berber language such as Siwa Berber or Rif Berber.”- The’ophile Obenga African Philosophy The Pharaonic Period: 2780-330 BC.

In 1974 two of our best African minds entered a conference centered around the history of Africa and it’s owner of languages, history and much more. It was then the name Negro(black) Egyptian was introduced and proven to be the mother of all languages that come from under its umbrella. Two of the most organized Africans stole the show at the Unesco conference going against european minds who refuted the history of Black Africa. Comparative Linguistic studies by Dr. Diop, Dr. Obenga, Dr. Mboli, and a few other American African centered linguist have carried one another’s work an additional step throughout the years. They have all provided evidence that illustrate its historical breakthrough in parenting other African languages and it’s history. Ranykemet or Egyptian Spoken Language is not a dead language persay, Coptic is still being spoken til this day, and unlike the Hebrew language which once was a dead language the process of fully restoring it will take several years to complete. 

“When speaking of language in general, both the spoken and written forms are usually being referred, however, there are times when one or the other becomes the focus.” -Wudjau Men-Ib Iry-Maat A Beginner’s Introduction To Medew Netcher. As new languages are created different writing scripts will emerge that will support them. Since colonialism has soaked itself in grounds of the motherland a lot of what was has been lost. The root of culture is well within the confines of the language. In understanding the customs and practices of the ancestors we must first get rid of the influence of the colonizer, and restore the true meaning of a language that has been lost.

We as a people are so far removed from our native tongue and common practices we tend to not appreciate the beauty of our own language and writing script. To make false claims about translating the hieroglyphs only to turn around and tells story about the same hieroglyphs you’re saying can’t be translated is very hypocritical. With rigorous studies and applied understanding of methodology one can soon learn how to decipher the hieroglyphs with help.

References: Obenga, Théophile. African Philosophy: The Pharaonic Period 2780-330 BC. Popenguine: Per Ankh, 2004. Print.
Iry-Maat, Wudjau Men-Ib. “A Beginner’s Introduction To Medew Netcher – The Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic System Paperback – March 24, 2015.” A Beginner’s Introduction To Medew Netcher. Heka Multimedia, Mar. 2015. Web. 30 Oct. 2016. 

By:Ini-Herit Khalfani

November 7, 2016

Nashville, TN

<https://www.amazon.com/Beginners-Introduction-Medew-Netcher-Hieroglyphic/dp/0692411402&gt;.

Multimedia, By Heka. “Welcome to Mdw-nTr Community.” Mdw-nTr. Wudjau Men-Ib Iry-Maat, Jan. 2015. Web. 30 Oct. 2016. <http://www.mdw-ntr.com/membership/community&gt;.

Photos by: Wukitsch, Tom. “Unit 3: Egyptian Writing — Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, Demotic, Coptic.” Unit 3: Egyptian Writing — Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, Demotic, Coptic. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2016. <http://www.mmdtkw.org/EGtkw0300-Unit3EgyptianWriting.html&gt;.

“ANKH: Egyptologie Et Civilisations Africaines.” ANKH: Egyptologie Et Civilisations Africaines. Ankhonl, 2006. Web. 30 Oct. 2016. <http://www.ankhonline.com/obenga_th_bibli.htm&gt;.

Deciphermentsisu Follow. “Class 05 Champollion.” Class 05 Champollion. N.p., 27 Jan. 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2016. <http://www.slideshare.net/deciphermentsisu/class-05-champollion&gt;.

Obenga, The’ophile. “EgyptSearch Forums: FYI.” EgyptSearch Forums: FYI. Asar Imhotep, 4 Apr. 2015. Web. 30 Oct. 2016. <http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic%3Bf&gt;.

Economic Survival: Escaping Capitalism Racism and White Supremacy 

Before America was Ameria, it harvested the indigenous people who had no notion of an economy built on capitalism. What is capitalism one might ask?  According to Merriam Dictionary capitalism is,  “A way of organizing an economy so that the things that are used to make and transport products (such as land, oil, factories, ships, etc.) are owned by individual people and companies rather than by the government.” WEBSTER MARIAM. “CAPITALISM.” To understand capitalism we must understand the history. According to University of KMT press, an “Economic systems are different in history. Capitalism grew out of feudalism.” “Feudalism is a social system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages in which people worked and fought for nobles who gave them protection and the use of land in return. WEBSTER MARIAM. “Feudal System.” Before capitalism, many people bartered which is engraved in the cultural traditions of people. The originators never valued anything outside its function or it’s need. Bartering catered to the necessity of the community meaning what one family couldn’t harvest or have access instead they traded amongst each other as it meets the needs of the entire community. What is a bartering? “According to Investment Answers, “Bartering is an exchange between two parties using goods and services for payment instead of currency.”

For centuries since being kidnapped and brought to the Americas, our ancestors have struggled to gain wealth and equality. After hundreds of years slavery and enriching the lives of others,  we continue to be shackled, and empty handed. Despite all our hard work and millions of hours of free labor,  Americas new economy “capitalism” has generated  a wealth system we have yet to become full beneficiaries.  A system that has proven catastrophic to our community as a result of economic castration preventing us from fully engaging in this economic system built by our ancestors.

According to Tdka Maat Kilimanjaro Yahra Aaneb in Bak2. “Economist say the Great Recession lasted from 2007 to 2011. In 2004, the median net worth of white households was $134,280, compared with $13,256 for black households, according to an analysis of Federal Reserve data by the Economic Policy Institute. By 2009, the median net worth for white households had fallen 24% to $97,860; the median Black net worth had fallen 83% to $2,170. In 2009, for every dollar of wealth the average white household had, Black households only had two cents.”‘

Many people believe we should compete in this capitalist society to fix our community, while others  disagree pointing to its past tracked record of  addressing the problems of  black social injustuce, racism, and white supremacy. However, Dr. Claude Anderson seems to accept certain aspects of the economy system, stating capitalism creates job. Dr. Anderson pointed out in his book that job creation was the first step in political empowerment. He encouraged us not to depend on the government for support and maintained that we have always been the losers of captlism a system built on inequality . “as 2nd class citizens for 500 yrs we got absolutely nothing, soon we will be 3rd class citizens, and in the future, we’ll be 4th class citizens. If we didn’t get anything as 2nd class citizens what make you think we will get something as 4th class citizens”. He encouraged us to create jobs, business and take social responsibility by creating programs that foster growth and community development. Dr. Anderson believed at the core of our success is the development of an independent economic structure, a code of conduct economically, and group economics. He also encouraged block voting, which he maintained took discipline and accountability.

Like Dr. Anderson, Dr. Amos Wilson took a similar approach. He Also believed Africans must maintain integrity economically, while understanding survival was the key to our growth and development. He suggested that short-term solutions and long-term initiatives could liberate us from the economic stronghold of capitalism. He stressed the European could not help us solve our problems.  “We create jobs, but we are not in a position to own that job that we created.” Tdka Maat Kilimanjaro of University of KMT press echoed these same beliefs in a similar way but placed emphasis on overthrowing the system using group economics stating we must “take advantage of All our resources.” All three scholars agreed that we should  pull our resources and then  develop a plan based on cooperative economics.

As  Africans living in American, we have to come to grip with our position and realize this was the hand we were dealt. We were kidnapped, and deprived of our culture, language, spiritual system, and identity. Therefore,  we must come together collectively to gain economic ground by setting an economic agenda. I read a study that stated we are 300 years behind in wealth compared to the majority. Take a look around at the wealth disparities in this country, predatory lending, and a look at all the new millionaires, all which that look like them.  Our leadership has failed. Our community lacks the same education opportunities faced with very few options other than Section 8, welfare, and minimum-wage jobs as a means of survival.

The states are high, and we must look critically and how we addressed these problems and ask how can we design an economy built for us, what would it take, what would it look like, how could it benefit everyone, what would keep the economy afloat?  All of these questions have to be answered, evaluated, and solutions must be designed based scientific methods  that focus on economic survival that are deeply engraved in the fabric of American culture. Once we can answer these questions and devise a plan,  we can then design a economy based on meeting the needs of our community. “We need a social/economic system that allows every person to have equal food, clothing, shelter, technical applied education. Second, we need the extraction and modernization of the very best of African culture–minus anything myths/mysticism forced on us by invaders.  Self respect, self-value, and self-reliance is the foundation of happiness. Justice is the basis of equality and freedom.”- Tdka Kilimanjaro Ife Kilimanjaro Bak2.

If we want to have our own “Pie”, we must create the best bakers on the planet. We must be willing to inherit the ideas of a Claude Anderson, mixed with Amos Wilson Black Power approach, and incorporate them with Tdka Kilimanjaro using nothing less than our best, brightest and wisest minds. This will take sacrifice among like-minded individuals who can incorporate and see things from beginning to the end. We have very little time, no time for finger-pointing or blame, and we must be willing to dedicate our lives to the liberation from the horrors of  500 years of systemic racism in America.

We didn’t come to America looking to build our families or looking to create financial freedom. Instead, we came naked, bruised and confused on boats full of urine, blood, mucus, disease, and death.  One by one, trip after trip we were captured against our will and thrust into an unfamiliar place to bend over backward to our death for the greater good of someone else’s dream. In return, we got absolutely nothing, not one red cent, not a pot to piss in or a window to throw it out of!

Everything we got we earned under very strict and harsh circumstances which we made the ultimate sacrifice to protect our women, men, and children from the oppressor. Capitalism was built on these sacrifices with the purpose of destroying our will to live. How dare we fix our problems,  how dare we accept this path for our children, and how dare we fight this economic bully that has created social, economic, and spiritual decay in our community?

We have to work hard and study the past to advance the future. But we must not only study, but we must also test our solutions, critique the flaws, and repeat the process to ensure our success. Then improve our existence by fostering relationships between like-minded individuals who are committed to advancing our sociopolitical position in society that was created to ensure we remained death, blind, and ignorant to the reality. In order to restore what was lost we must empower our people using strategies based on sound economic principles employed  when we were in the land of our ancestors.

Written

Shawn Phillips

Voices  of Fire

References: Tdka Kilimanjaro Bak2, Claude Anderson Powernomics book and lectures, Amos Wilson The Blue Print to Black Power lecture and book. Video references: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCQ9gh8EcY8  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4m4lY5IQZgQ

Photo Credit:  American Dream  Cartoons, Ashley Bradford

Editor: Nyah Amara

Highly recommend all three books

 

 

Dr. Sebi Dies of Pneumonia In a Honduras Hospital

According to Online social media reports http://secretenergy.com/news/the-official-story-of-dr-sebis-death/ Dr. Sebi passed away on Saturday, August 6th, 2016  due to complications of Pneumonia after spending the last two weeks in Honduras prison (See Update).”Dr. Sebi becomes sick with pneumonia while being held in prison. His condition escalated quickly, and he was transferred to a nearby hospital. We are unsure about what type of treatment he received over the course of the last few days, both before and After being admitted to the hospital”. Reports have surfaced that Dr. Sebi was arrested at a Honduras Airport and charged with having 37,000 dollars. The details of his death have not been confirmed by the family, but social reports have surfaced that Dr. Sebi was taken to the hospital after his cellmate noticed he was not breathing. He was transferred to a Roatan hospital located in the Caribbean 65k off the northern coast of Honduras where he passed away. It’s unclear why he was arrested given his worldwide notary and public profile, but his daughter vowed to seek justice. Honduras Prisons are some of the worse prisons in the world. With a Population of over 8 million people, the country is home to some of the most violent gangs in the world.

Dr. Sebi’s Legacy

Accordingto Dr Sebi website “Dr. Sebi was 82 years old at the time of his passing. He was an Pathologist, herbalist, and naturalist with  decades studying the plants and herbs of North, South and Central America, Africa and the Caribbean. His unique approach to healing the human body is firmly rooted in that experience. Born Alfredo Bowman in Honduras in 1933Dr. Sebi learned at the foot of his grandmother, “Mama Hay,” and later, in treating himself, with a traditional herbalist in Mexico. On finding the healing he’d sought, Dr Sebi created a line of natural vegetable cell food compounds used for inter-cellular cleansing and cellular revitalization”.Dr. Sebi used an African approach to disease that relied on what he dedication described as an” botanical remedies to cleanse and detoxify the body, bringing it back to a more alkaline state from the acidity that causes disease and pathology. Natural vegetable cell food compounds are an important part of that change. By removing accumulated toxins, and replacing depleted minerals, cell foods can rejuvenate damaged cell tissue, especially those eroded by acidity. The primary organs affected are the skin, liver, gall bladder, lymph glands, kidneys and the colon. With inclusive nutritional programs designed, not around the pathology, but around the whole person and their diet and health, cell foods are an important part of the nutritional environment of every recovering, responsible and healthy individual”. https://drsebiscellfood.com

 

Dr. Sebi was a Baba, father, friend, and mentor to us all. I’m personally devastated by his untimely passing, but encouraged to continue his work. My heart felt condolences goes out to the family and all those affected by this tragedy. Rest in Power.

Nyah Amara

Voices  of Fire

A FAILED WORLD-VIEW!

Our worldview is greatly influenced by our life experiences and early in childhood. Our parents greatly influence how we perceive the world around us and our relationships with others. If raised in a home that was unsafe, it’s likely that we would develop mistrust in our relationships. Similarly, if raised in an safe environment where we felt nurtured, loved, and protected than it is likely that we will learn to trust others. This is a very basic understanding of the Nature vs. Nurture argument that specialists have been arguing about for years. Author Joy DeGruy seemed, to sum up, this theory when she stated in her book that: “We carry our painful experiences into our adulthood, and they become the basis for our worldview,” which is defined as our beliefs, our attitudes, and our response to the natural environment. Just as our parents influenced our worldview, historic racism also influenced our environment. An environment that is unsafe will always produce insecurity.

The topic of Evolution exposes the  our insecurity because it forces us to address the nature Vs nurture argument. Most of us reject evolution in favor of a feel-good explanation of life, not because we understand evolution, but because of hate science, and the premise of a gradual development that is categorally opposed to intelligent design.  We are much more comfortable with pseudo claims of extraterrestrials, astro-projections, and gene splicing than science because it allows us to escape and avoid taking responsibility our problems using science that forced is evaluate what does and what does not work. Scientific literacy is defined as “knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity.”

In itself the rejection of evolution does not equate to scientific illiteracy. However, the implications of having leaders who are scientifically illiterate is  detrimental to our survival and growth. The community must achieve a level of scientific literacy; otherwise, we will never progress. According to the National Science Education Standards defines scientific literacy means that a person can ask, find, or determine answers to questions that are derived from curiosity about everyday experiences. Therefore a scientific literate person can do the following:

• Describe, explain and predict natural phenomena.

• Identify scientific issues underlying decisions and express positions that are scientifically and technologically informed.

• Evaluate the quality of scientific information using sources and identified methods used to support a specific position or ideas.

• Form arguments based on evidence and apply conclusions based on the evidence. (Wikipedia)

In the past 10 years the standards used to describe, identify, evaluate and then form conclusions have been greatly diminished by scientific illiteracy. We are no longer encouraging scientific discovery and innovation. But have allowed our hatred, fear, and obsession of the oppressor to dominate our discussions and created an environment where intimidation is used as a way to maintain the status quo. Instead of using scientific problems solving methods, many of the leaders threaten physical harm to resolve conflicts.  In a recent video posted by the self-proclaimed revolutionary leader of the conscious community  “General SETI” in a highly charged emotional five-minute response to Marcus, threatened physical violence. In the video, SETI handed down a warning that anyone who dared challenge his information would be subject to physical violence. He also made  insensitive comment regarding Marcus social status in the community stating “the only thing you can do for me is deliver my newspaper and bag my groceries.” He went on to say that instead of debating, Marcus should be in the “in the third grade, shining his shoes.” By the end of the video, Seti warned that the next time he came in contact Marcus in the streets, Marcus should run the other way. He also made a threat against Ankh warning that if he even dared to challenge him on the topic that “he would break his back.” The entire rant was based on a belief/claim that Ankh armed young Marcus with information on evolution that somehow threatened his position as a leader. A claim that seems paranoid given evolution is a topic that is widely debated in the community and one he Is currently promoting with Pharaoh Allah.
This behavior is an example of post traumatic slave syndrome, a condition that impacts your worldview and decision-making as well as the ability to define problems in an effective, coherent, and logical manner. Instead coming us with solutions, people with this condition will attack, use ad-hominems, and use threats of physical violence as a means of maintaining power and control. It is a condition that will cause a person to act in a way that is contrary to his goals. A condition that we must resolve because it impacts our ability to establish a worldview based on African values with the ultimate goal of unity. Seti a Man who was raised up in “the craft” and taught by Dr. Ben and who has traveled the world with many elders, revealed our failed worldview.

It seems the African community world view is in the Dark Ages similar to that of Europe when the church hunted, persecuted, and killed those who opposed religious doctrine. How did we get to this point and most importantly, what is the solution? When did it become acceptable for us to threaten each other over information? We have to demand accountability from our leaders and intimidation should not be tolerated. We must encourage the youth to study, ask questions, and challenge the status quo. We must develop relationships based on respect, good character, and we can’t allow those stuck in the past dictate our progress.

In conclusion, how we perceive the world around us is substantially influenced by our worldview, childhood, and environmental stressors, therefore it’s important that we adopt sound ideological practices. The human psyche is fragile and highly influenced by our experience. A person who is willing to die with a plan is not a warrior; he is a psychopath with nothing to lose. The only strategy against oppression is a strategy. One of my favorites quotes is “Appear weak when you are strong, and strong when you are weak”.

Voices of Fire

Nyah Amara

Photo Credit:Bavarian State Theater

Gang Prevention

The National Institute of Justice defines a gang as the following: “an association of three or more individuals whose members collectively identify themselves by adopting a group identity, which they use to create an atmosphere of fear or intimidation”. Gangs became increasingly popular in the 1920s, and over the decades, there have been gangs of all kinds of backgrounds; from the infamous Italian mobs and gangs to the Irish, Hispanic, and African American.

African American gangs make up about 35% of the countries gang, making it the second largest ethnicity involved in gangs (“National Youth Gang Survey Analysis”). The two largest and most known black gangs are the Bloods and Crips; though there are many gangs African Americans gangs all over the country from large cities to small rural towns. No matter where they reside, they are a controversial topic. Gangs are notorious for their involved in violent crimes such as robbery, kidnapping, murder, rape, etc.

The statistics on African American youth gang violence is alarming. Niaz Kasravi, a member of the NAACP, said, “the type of violence we see in poor African American communities of color on a daily basis is heartbreaking and should also be given attention”. In a study conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics for the year 2009, had 7,391 gun-related cases- of which 90 percent were males and the majority of which was black males. Along the same lines, a study conducted by the Washington D.C. Violence Policy Center showed that African American citizens are four times more likely to be murdered than any other ethnicity. The root of all of the violence being a crippling economic support for the African American communities, which is what gangs stem from. (Schou 2014).

A poor economy leaves African American families struggling, making their family structure significantly weak. Young boys turn to gangs as a means of protection and support. African American gangs. While it may be true that it offers young boys protection and a sense of family, the true reality of a gang is harsh and violent. In the life of gangs, no one is safe. It is not just the people within the gang, but their families as well. In November 2015, Tyshawn Lee, a nine-year-old boy, was murdered by three gang members of an opposing gang to his father’s. Tyshawn was targeted to get back at his father.

The first step is, of course, educating the youth about the risk factors of joining a gang. By helping the youth understand the cons about joining gangs, it will provide the insight to the harsh reality of the life of crime and help our youth understand their lives are much more valuable. Programs such as the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T) and Preventive Treatment Programs already exist and are working hard to reach out to the youth in hopes to help solve the youth gang problem. Community programs are other excellent alternatives that in provide hope and sense of belonging and family. By understanding the risk factors and using those to pinpoint at-risk youth, our  communities can prevent kids from joining gangs. The African Centered community should take the lead and develop grass roots gang prevention programs our community.

Works Cite

Gorner, Jeremy, and Peter Nickeas. “Man Charged in Killing of 9-year-old Tyshawn Lee,   Woman in Gang Feud.” Chicago Tribune. CBS Chicago, 08 Mar. 2016. Web. 21 June               2016.

Howell, James C. “Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs.” Juvenile    Justice, Dec. 2010. U.S. Department of Justice. Web. 21 June 2016.

“National Youth Gang Survey Analysis.” Demographics. N.p., 2012. Web. 21 June 2016.

Schou, Solvej. “Here’s Why Gang Violence Deserves as Much Outrage as School Shootings.”   TakePart. Participant Media, 30 Jan. 2014. Web. 21 June 2016.

“What Is a Gang? Definitions.” National Institute of Justice

Double Consciousness as Defined by W.E.B. Du Bois: A Look at the Dynamic, Which Birthed Consciousness in the African-American Community.

If we take a look at history and consider the influential characters that found purpose in explaining our social structures and social organizations, we are doing ourselves a favor – chasing a special type of knowledge that provides us insight into understanding and explaining these structures even today. Like many other concepts and theories that have taken hold and claimed a spot in the explanation of sociological structures and circumstances, the concept of double consciousness as defined by W.E.B. Du Bois can be studied and analyzed to gain a greater understanding of ourselves, those around us, and our general society. As defined by Du Bois, an American sociologist, historian, and civil rights activist, double consciousness is the concept that gives a definition and name to the feeling an African American as a result of being black and American. His explanation took a particular look at the sentiments felt by black Americans during and leading up to the time that he wrote his first book in 1903 titled The Souls of Black Folk. His writings took into careful and thoughtful consideration, the difficulties in identity that were being felt in the African American Community. He introduced the idea that Black people often experienced many challenges when it came down to the development a sense of self because of the trials we face and the confusion experienced as a result of being both black and American in a white supremacist society. His ideas highlight the sentiment that African Americans felt as a result of being oppressed and devalued, while living in a country that, on the contrary, encouraged equality and dignity.This contradiction, according to Du Bois, led to our inability to unify a proud African identify with an American identity in a meaningful way. If we fast forward more than one hundred years, we can still analyze this concept of double consciousness and look at how it has impacted the conscious community today. We can look at the Hebrews and see this confusion, we can look at the so-called black Natives and see this confusion, we can look at those who are enmeshed in the religious indoctrination and see this confusion, and we can look at those who practice pseudoscience and see the same confusion, all examples of failed attempts to successfully integrate one’s consciousness in a hostile society. The tension that is felt can be understood in light of Du Bois’ theory. Africans American today, like in the early 1900s, are also finding difficulty unifying these two very different identities. We instead are forced into stereotypes of the athlete, the rapper, the criminal and even in some circles we have taken on the characteristics of the oppressor, by claiming other oppressed people culture, creating fake story’s, and narratives in order to avoid the reality of being black in American.In many ways, we have lost contact with reality, our true identity, and our true purpose. Instead, we have replaced it with story’s that support our own flawed logic and low self-esteem. It seems we are content with simply “dipping it in chocolate” to satisfy the very basic human need to feel valued and accepted. As a result, we have lost our way and have forgotten those ancestors like Dubois who addressed the need to develop an African conscious and who understood its relevance and how the concept perfectly explained the dynamic and confusion that persist even today. He understood that the primary way to overcome this obstacle was through the proactive development of a congruent self. This means that, in order to create a personality that is organically unified, we have to make sure that our beliefs align with our actions creating an integrated self.
 In conclusion,Though this tense dynamic persists and has the potential to persist, understanding it through the lens of Du Bois’ teachings and his idea of double consciousness can eliminate the fear, thus allowing us to focus our efforts towards building a sound community. Our efforts, during this time, should be focused on the organization and implementation of programs that facilitate awareness, understanding, and support. We can’t afford to point the finger or blame. We must take an inventory of self, our anger, our resentments, and our grief and start the process of healing. By defining double consciousness, understanding the dynamic, and becoming aware of its impact, we can slowly start to can change the paradigm to positive awareness, which will create change in our community.
Citations: Aiston, Chevette. “Double Consciousness and Du Bois: Definition and Concept.” Study.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 June 2016. Bruce, Dickson D. “W. E. B. Du Bois and the Idea of Double Consciousness.” American Literature 64.2 (1992): 299-309. Web. Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1993. Print.

Defining Pan-Africanism

Defining Pan-Africanism is a complex task due to the intricate nature of its being, but can best be described as a philosophy which advocates for the fellowship of Africans in culture, politics, and ideology. One of the founders of Pan-Africanism in its modern form is a man named Henry Sylvester-Williams. In 1897 he created what was called then called the African Association while in England in order to promulgate the interests of African people and the horrid injustices they were facing around the globe, and later organized the first Pan-African Conference. While Sylvester-Williams was an originator of Pan-Africanism, possibly its most prominent leader was Kwame Nkrumah, a teacher, politician, and activist who was vital in helping Gold Coast (now Ghana), secure its independence from the British empire. As the country’s Prime Minister, he held up Pan-African values by working to establish cultural and educational opportunities for men and women alike.Pan-Africanism was championed by men like Nkrumah, but the ideology has taken on other forms over time, including Afrocentrism, which in basic terms is an outlook that calls upon people of African heritage to appreciate and acknowledges traditional African values, which were thought to have been pushed to the side or outright ignored in the face of European slavery.Modern Afrocentrism is an intellectual and academic ideology which has its roots in the United States following the end of the Civil War and the new freedoms afforded to slaves, who worked to create their own communities and become educated. American civil rights activist W.E.B. Dubois is often credited with coining the phrase, but today, the individual most associated with Afrocentrism is Molefi Kete Asante, professor of African American studies at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.One of the often heard criticisms levied at Asante and Afrocentrism in general, is that it is a pseudoscience, which is defined as a system or claim that is supposedly scientific but does not adhere to the scientific method. Critics have said that Afrocentrism shouldn’t be rooted in academia because it promotes historical inaccuracies, vague generalizations, and racism, which are all counterproductive. Instead, the proper methodology should be used in order to understand fully and gain awareness of the history of African people. Despite, Afrocentrism continues to thrive as a sound practice which supports the scientific method,  defined as a formula which develops an hypothesis, experimentation, gathering the data, and then examining it to form a conclusion. Pseudoscience, on the other hand, does none of this, and in fact, can be extremely dangerous. One need only looks at the denial of the link between H.I.V. and AIDS or the refusal of vaccines and medical treatment for children by their parents to see the truly deadly consequences of pseudoscience. These examples are a reminder that failing to maintain a proper academic standard and balanced approach to intellectual literacy has real consequences, even if they are not yet fully apparent. Rejecting pseudoscience and religious “spookism”  will be important in redefining what it means to be conscious in the true legacy of Pan-Africanism and men like Sylvester-Williams and Nkrumah.